Fujisan's Kyareng

Friday, May 7, 2021

ཨ་མའི་ཉིན་མོར་ཨ་མའི་དྲན་གླུ །

An Ode to Mother on Mother's Day!

 ཨ་མ་དྲན་གླུ །

མ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་བྱམས་བརྩེའི་གཅེས་སྐྱོང་དེ།  བུ་ང་ཡིས་རྟག་ཏུ་དྲན་བཞིན་ཡོད།

ཁྱེད་རེ་རེ་དྲན་དུས་མིག་ཆུ་ཤོར།  ཁྱེད་མེད་ན་ང་གང་ཡང་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །

དཀའ་སྡུག་དང་ངལ་རྩོལ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱིས་མྱངས།  བུ་ང་ལ་ཤེས་བྱའི་ལམ་བཟང་སྟོན།

དུས་ཀུན་ཏུ་བསླབ་སྟོན་བཀའ་དྲིན་ཆེ།  ཁྱེད་མེད་ན་ང་གང་ཡང་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །

དཀར་གསལ་གྱི་ཟླ་བ་ནམ་ཤར་དུ།  མ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་བཞིན་རས་དྲན་ལྷང་ལྷང་།

བུ་ང་ཡི་མི་ཚེ་གང་ལྟར་ཡང་།  ཁྱེད་མེད་ན་ང་གང་ཡང་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །

ཁྱེད་རང་གི་དཀའ་སྡུག་ཁོག་ཏུ་སྦས།  བུ་ང་ཡི་བདེ་སྡུག་སྙིང་དུ་བཅང་།

མ་རྗེ་བཙུན་སྒྲོལ་མའི་སྤྲུལ་པ་ཁྱེད། ཁྱེད་མེད་ན་ང་གང་ཡང་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །

སྙིང་ཁོང་ནས་གུས་བརྩི་ཁྱེད་ལ་ཞུ།  སེམས་ཁོང་ནས་སྨོན་ལམ་ཁྱེད་ལ་ཞུ།

བུ་ང་ལ་འཕྲད་པའི་དྲིན་ཅན་མ། མི་ཀུན་ལ་བྱུང་བའི་སྨོན་ལམ་ཞུ། །

ཁྱེད་བདེ་བའི་གཞིང་ལ་གནས་པར་ཤོག  ཁྱེད་སངས་རྒྱས་གཞིང་ལ་སྐྱེས་པར་ཤོག

ཁྱེད་རིགས་དྲུག་མཚོ་ལས་གྲོལ་བར་ཤོག  ཁྱེད་མེད་ན་ང་གང་ཡང་མ་ཡིན་ནོ། །


Thursday, April 22, 2021

Brief Introduction to Buddhism and Kalachakra Teachings





 Center: Kalachakra deity, Viswamata [Yabyum] and the Mandala

Top from the left: 1. Yab yum, Vishwamata 2, rDo rje `jigs byed, Yamantaka 3. rGyal wa rdo rje chang, Vajradhara 4. `Khor lo bde mchog, Chakrasamvara 5. gSang wa `dus pa, Guhyasamaja.

Bottom from the left: 1. Chos rgyal, Dharmaraja 2. rNam sras, Vaisravana 3. Rig ldan rgyal po

It is a common knowledge that all beings, including the small insects, desire happiness and avoid sufferings. In the process of finding true happiness, we are often confronted with sufferings. Lord Buddha taught us to contemplate on the cause of sufferings, so that we can avoid it and uproot it, and achieve eternal happiness
, Nirvana and Buddhahood.

According to the Buddhist law of causality and interdependency, what we are right now is because of our past Karma, what we will be in our next life depends on what we do in this life. Negative karma, and deeds born out of our mental delusion are the cause of our sufferings. Therefore, our mental delusion caused by – Ignorance, attachment, pride, anger and jealousy are the main cause of our sufferings.

Lord Buddha taught us the way to overcome these delusions and achieve ultimate peace in the form of enlightenment. The practice involves cultivating the three higher trainings of self-discipline, meditative concentration, and the wisdom understanding emptiness. Buddha's teaching can be interpreted, practiced and understood from two major yanas, vehicles: Hinayana and Mahayana [Tib: thegmen and thegchen].

Hinayana, the lesser vehicle is Theravada Buddhism. Here the practitioners practice to overcome the mental delusions and gain insight into the ultimate nature of emptiness to achieve Nirvana for themselves.

Mahayana, the greater vehicle, can be further divided into – Paramitayana and Vajrayana [Tib:mDo and bsNags]. In Paramitayana, the practitioners, besides practicing what the Hinayanist practice, they cultivate Boddhicitta mind to achieve Buddhahood to help all the sentient beings.

Vajrayana or Tantrayana, is esoteric form of Buddhism. Besides the Sutra practice, it involves Tantra also. The wisdom that realizes the profound emptiness is same in Paramitayana and Vajrayana, differences lie in the methods. Vajrayana adopt methods, which involves practice of deity yoga – meditating on oneself as having an aspect of similar to that of a Form body. This practice is divided into four classes - Kirya, Carya, Yoga and Anuttara Yoga.

Kalachakra teachings belong to the highest yoga tantra class of Anuttara Yoga, where the Kalachakra deity Viswamata and the mandala is meditated upon and visualized. Buddha taught the Kalachakra tantra at Shri Dhanyakataka in South India at the behest of Suchandra, the first kalkin of mystical kingdom of Shambhala. The teachings prospered in Shambhala and came back to India and spread to Tibet only around the 10th century. From the time of Dro Lotsawa, Buton Rinchen Druppa to Tsongkappa, Kalachakra empowerment was passed on from one Tibetan master to another successively, in this way we have His Holiness the Dalai Lama, one of the lineage holders to this day to give us the teachings.

Tantras are sacred secret teachings usually taught only to a few accomplished practitioners. Kalachakra teachings, although is one of the highest yoga tantra, it is given to a vast congregation of public of all spiritual caliber. According to His Holiness the Dalai Lama,

"Certainly, not everyone who attends will have a sufficient inner basis to receive the full benefits of the initiation, but it is believed that anyone attending with a positive attitude will establish and strengthen positive karmic instincts."

It is said that the merit of participating and receiving Kalachakra teachings differs from person to person according to their level of spiritual understanding and motivation. For accomplished practitioners, this is a chance to receive the full initiation to practice the tantra, for those who have fair understanding of the practice, the teachings present a good opportunity to reconfirm and invigorate their understanding. For those who don't know much about the teachings, it provides a karmic seed to receive and practice the teachings.

In all the above cases, the most important requirement to receive the teachings is the participants' altruistic motivation to benefit the sentient beings. Therefore, the motive behind receiving the teachings should be very pure and magnanimous. As for the world peace, it is to be noted that the power and blessing from the assembly of a great multitude all driven by pure altruistic motivation is bound to influence and generate a conducive force and environment to build a peaceful world without war and violence.

It can also be said that the participations in Kalachakra teachings enables the participants to pray and to sow a karmic seed to get reborn in the mystical land of Shambhala to further their practice of the teachings.


Note: The article was written to introduce Buddhism and Kalachakra teachings to the Japanese who were planning to receive His Holiness the Dalai Lama`s 31st Kalachakra teaching in Washington DC in July 2011.
1. The Practice of Kalachakra by Glenn Mullin, Snowlion Publications, 1991
2. Kalachakra Initiations by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Dalai Lama.com 2011
3. The Kalachakra Initiation by D.R. Prodan, 1993

Tuesday, April 6, 2021

The Meaning of Om Mani Padme Hum



Om Mani Padme Hum mantra is one of the most popular Buddhist mantras recited by the Tibetans and the Buddhists along the Himalayan belts. What is the inspiration behind this mantra and what does this mantra really signifies. It is Avalokestisvara, the Buddha of compassion, mantra to help rescue all sentient beings, including oneself from the sea of Samsara. This is a general belief and understanding.

Avaloketisvara, revered in Tibet as Chenrezig [Tib: sPyan ras gzigs], is supposed to be the patron deity of Tibet. Manikabum, an ancient text attributed to the scholarship of the 7th century King Srongtsan Gampo, has the whole myth and history about the sacred relationship.

There may be various approaches to explain the meaning of the mantra at different levels. According the Manikabum text[1], it says that the recitation of the mantra helps one not to be reborn in the six realms [Tib: 'Dro ba rigs drug]. It also helps mitigate the sufferings of the beings in the six realms[2].  

Recitation of the mantra in deep contemplation with a strong motivation to relieve the sufferings of all beings is a good spiritual practice. But in our day to day life, we can recite this mantra even while taking a walk. This will help the health of our body, speech, and mind.

I remember my mother (late) telling me one should recite Mani wherever possible. She said the recitation of the mantra will calm your mind and make you mindful. She has a beautiful Tibetan lyrical stanza, which translate to something like this. Recite Mani even when you are walking, no need to worry that you will trample it; recite Mani even when you are eating, no need to worry that you will swallow it; recite Mani even while in toilet, no need to worry that it will get dirty; recite Mani even when you are sleeping, no need to worry that it will rob your sleep; and so on[3].  

Buddhists usually accumulate the recitations with a rosary of 108 beads, one circle of rosary recitation means Trengkor chig [Tib:Phreng skor gcig].

In one of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's teachings, a young girl asked His Holiness the meaning of Om Mani Padme Hum[4]. Here is the gist of what His Holiness the Dalai Lama said:

Buddhist system tends to utilize the human intelligence in a maximum way to train and transform our mind to achieve enlightenment. Recitation of mantra is one way to achieve transformation of mind.

This Avalokisteshvara mantra, Om Mani Padme Hum has six syllables. Om usually comes first in the Hindu and Buddhist mantras.

Om has three letters, A, O, and Ma. These three letters represent body, speech and mind at two levels. The impure level is the basis of all suffering, and the pure level is the basis of enlightenment.

We practice to transform our body, speech, and mind which are at the impure level to ever pleasant pure level. Now, how do we do this? Mani means Jewel [Norbu], it represents infinite altruism and compassion. Padme means lotus representing wisdom. Hum represents the realization of combination of the altruism and wisdom.

So, Om Mani Padme Hum can be translated as a mantra to transform the impure body, speech, and mind of ours to a pure level through the practice of altruism and wisdom, [thabs dang shes-rab].

This altruism is a Boddhicitta mind to help all sentient beings, and the wisdom is the wisdom realizing the emptiness of all phenomena.

But mere recitation of prayers and mantras is not helpful; it should be complimented with a real practice. All religions carry same message of love, compassion, and tolerance. Theistic religions lay more emphasis on prayers. Buddhism is non-theistic, it emphasis is more on practice than prayers.

Buddha has said, you are your own master and savior[5]. Your future directly depends on yourself. Study and accumulation of knowledge is very important. But to use this knowledge in the best possible way, it is important to have a good motivation, i.e. Bodhicitta mind. Therefore, having a good and kind heart is very important.

One of the famous quote of His Holiness the Dalai Lama is "Kindness is my religion", and "Help other, if you cannot help, at least don't harm them".   

Here is a beautiful recitation of the mantra in musical form: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-ZO7bsA2pA

[1] Manikabum scripture, p-36, Shering Parkhang. ཨོྂ་གྱིས་ལྷའི་སྐྱེ་སྒོ་གཅོད།  མས་ལྷ་མ་ཡིན་གྱི་སྐྱེ་སྒོ་གཅོད།  །ཎིས་མིའི་སྐྱེ་སྒོ་གཅོད།  མེས་ཡི་དྭགས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེ་སྒོ་གཅོད།  ཧཱུྂ་གིས་དམྱལ་བའི་སྐྱེ་སྒོ་བཅད་ནས།  འགྲོ་བ་རིགས་དྲུག་གི་གནས་སྟོངས་པར་བྱེད་པ་ཡིན།

[2] The six realms are: three upper realms of gods, demi-gods, and human, and three lower realms of hell beings, petras, and animals

[3] I am trying to get this original Tibetan stanza, if anybody knows it, please share at the comment box.

[4] Here is the video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QQKDP8SQZg

[5] བདག་ཉིད་བདག་གི་མགོན་ཡིན་གྱི།  གཞན་ལྟ་སུ་ཞིག་མགོན་དུ་གྱུར།

Friday, January 22, 2021

Sukiyaki Song: Ue o Muite Arukoo

Sukiyaki Song: Ue o Muite Arukoo by Sakamoto Kyu


Let's walk looking up in the sky

So that the tears don't fall down on the ground


བློ་ཁ་ཡར་ཕྱོགས་བསྟན་ནས། མཉམ་དུ་གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱོས།

༡༽ བློ་ཁ་ཡར་ཕྱོགས་བསྟན་ནས། མཉམ་དུ་གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱོས།  མིག་ཆུ་ས་ལ།  མ་ལྷུང་བའི་འབད་བརྩོན་བགྱིས།

སེམས་ལ་དྲན་བྱུང་། དཔྱིད་ཀྱི་ཉིན་དེ།   ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།


བློ་ཁ་ཡར་ཕྱོགས་བསྟན་ནས། མཉམ་དུ་གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱོས།  གནམ་གྱི་སྐར་མ། འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་གྲངས་ཀ་རྒྱག་བཞིན།

སེམས་ལ་དྲན་བྱུང་། དབྱར་གྱི་ཉེན་དེ།  ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།

སེམས་ཀྱི་བདེ་སྐྱིད་དེ། སྤྲིན་གྱི་ཐོག་ལ།  སེམས་ཀྱི་བདེ་སྐྱེད་དེ། གནམ་མཁའི་སྟེང་ལ།


༢༽ བློ་ཁ་ཡར་ཕྱོགས་བསྟན་ནས། མཉམ་དུ་གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱོས།  མིག་ཆུ་ས་ལ།  མ་ལྷུང་བའི་འབད་བརྩོན་བགྱིས།

ངུ་བཞིན་ངུ་བཞིན། གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱས།  ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།

༼ཁ་ཤུ།  ཁ་ཤུ༽  ༼ཁ་ཤུ།  ཁ་ཤུ༽

སེམས་ལ་དྲན་བྱུང་། སྟོན་ཁའི་ཉིན་དེ།   ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།

སེམས་ཀྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་དེ། སྐར་མའི་གྲིབ་ནག་ལ།  སེམས་ཀྱི་དཀའ་ངལ་དེ། ཟླ་བའི་གྱི་གྲིབ་ནག་ལ།


༣༽ བློ་ཁ་ཡར་ཕྱོགས་བསྟན་ནས། མཉམ་དུ་གོམ་འགྲོས་བྱོས།   མིག་ཆུ་ས་ལ།  མ་ལྷུང་བའི་འབད་བརྩོན་བགྱིས།

ངུ་བཞིན་ངུ་བཞིན། གྲོམ་འགྲོས་བྱས།  ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།  ང་རང་གཅིག་པུར་ལུས་པའི་མཚན་མོ།


གཞས་གདངས། ན་ཀཱ་མུ་ར་ཧ་ཅི་ད་ཡི།  གཞས་ཚིག ཨེ་ཨི་རོ་ཀུ་ས་ཀེ། ཉི་འོང་གཞས་པ། ས་ཀ་མོཊོ་ཀྱུ། བོད་སྒྱུར། ཨརྱ་ཚེ་དབང་རྒྱལ་པོ།

Wednesday, January 6, 2021

Lungta (rLungta), a Tibetan prayer flag

 A short note on Lungta, a Tibetan prayer flag and its origin



(Mussoorie Lhagyal Ri)
If you happen to visit any Tibetan settlements or villages, your eyes will be greeted first with colorful flags hung horizontally on trees in the hills and ridges, and on the rooftops. These are Tibetan prayer flags commonly known as Lungta darchog [Tib: rLung-rta dar-cog], air-horse or wind-horse flag. This is the same with people living along the Himalayan regions practicing Vajrayana Buddhism and sharing Tibetan cultural bonds.

Lung [Tib: rLung] means air or wind, and Ta [Tib: rTa] is horse. So, Lung-ta means an air-horse or a wind-horse. It is a divine horse to lift our energy and life force and carry our message to the gods and deities.

What is this Lungta prayer flag and what does it signify. According to Tibetan medical and astrological system, for the holistic health of a person, assessment of the five aspects of the individual, i.e. Lus, la, srog, wang and lungta, [Tib: lus, bla, srog, dbang and rlung-rta][1] is very important. They can be roughly translated as, body, life-force (energy), life, power, and fortune. It is the last, Lungta, the fortune or luck aspect that pervades the overall well being of the individual.

Fortune here is not about the material wealth and riches. It is about the overall aspects of your being and existence, the vital force. How things go smoothly or not is generally attributed to the level of your Lungta. A high level of Lungta [Tib: rLung rta mtho po] will ensure smooth and successful completion of your work and aspiration, while a low level of Lungta [Tib: rLung rta dma' po] does the opposite.

Lungta was originally written in Tibetan as kLung-rta and later as rLung-rta, meaning Air-horse. This Air-horse is the carrier of your fortune and vital force. The faster it runs, the better it is for the individual's well being. We say "De ring rLung-rta rgyud song.", today my Air-horse ran, meaning things went very well  or all positive elemental forces were conducive that day. There are terms like, Lungta darba, Lungta gyaspa and Lungta gyugpa, meaning flourishing lungta, expanding lungta and running lungta, these are all positive Lungta. Negative Lungta are: Lungta chagpa, Lungta nyampa and Lungta gudpa, meaning, fallen lungta, diminishing lungta and downfall of lungta. There is a Tibetan proverb[2] which says, there is no doubt about my shooting, whether it will hit the target or not will depend on my Lungta.

Therefore, care is taken to keep this Air-horse in good health and running. Lungta prayer flags are hoisted on auspicious days, especially during the Tibetan New Year, Losar. When things are not going well and smoothly, people often hoist Lungta flags and perform Sangsol [burning of juniper or herbs]. Propitiation of deities with offerings and prayer recitation are done to activate one's Lungta.

Now, let us examine what a typical Lungta prayer flag looks like and what is written on the flag. It comes in five thin rectangular or square cotton clothes in five colors: yellow, green, red, white and blue. These colors represent the five natural elements: earth, water, fire, air and space. In the four corners of the flags are four animals: a Tiger at the bottom-right; a Lion at the bottom-left; a Garuda at the top-left; and a Dragon at the top-right. In the center is the Air-horse carrying the wish fulfilling jewel, and prayers to remove obstacles are written in between the animals.

What these animals represent, we have already discussed the main Lungta, the Air-horse. Astrological and elemental connotation is: Tiger represents Lus and forest; Lion - bLa and Snow mountain; Garuda represents Srog and sky; Dragon - dBang-thang and lake (klung); and Horse - rLung-rta and cloud. But Prof Samten Karmay notes that the ancient manuscript has the lion representing Lungta and horse the bLa[3]. General assumption is: Tiger represents bodily health; Lion represents soul's health; Garuda represents life-force; Dragon the power; and Horse, the fortune[4].

Through Lungta prayer flags, the health of our fortune is activated which in turn ensures a strong life-force, healthy body, powerful presence and vital soul.

One important question is how did this Lungta concept originated? Is it a Buddhist culture or does it have its origin from the native Bon religion. Manuscript or reference materials on the subject are very scarce. An ancient manuscript by the title of "dBu nag mi'u 'dra chag', Appearance of the Little Black Headed-man, compiled and translated by Prof Samten Karmay[5] takes us back to the Tibetan mythical era and gives us some useful information on the origin of Lungta prayer flag.

Prof Karmay says, "Although the manuscript is attributed to Emperor Khrisrong Deutsan [742-797], but in the text there is reference to Kublai Khan. It therefore cannot pre-date the thirteenth century." It talks about six songs or poems dealing with the origin myths of the universe and the Tibetan people. From the cosmic egg emerged a being Sridpa Sangpo khri, also known by Yemon Gyalpo, the King of the primeval wish. From him came the Phyva, dMu, gTsug, gNyan, Ye, and Ngam came. They are the ancestors of the gods, spirits and humans.

Sridpa Nekhrom [Tib: Srid pa sNe phrom], the youngest of the thirty-seven children of Phyva God Yablhadaldrug, was sent to the earth to establish human race. He lived with a Phyva woman and through their son, Thingpo, came the ancestors of Trom, Gya, Hor, Bod, Jang and Mon[6] [Persia, China, Mongolia, Tibet, Yunan and India].        

Father Anye Khritho Chenpo has three wives: gNyan-bza', dMu-bza' and Srin-bza'.  gNyan-bza' has three sons: lDong, dBra and 'Gru; dMu-bza' has one, sGa; and Srin-bza' has two: dBa' and lDa.

When the father Khritho was tending yaks on the mount Lhari, seven robbers from the demon land robbed him of all his yaks. Furious, he charges them, but his wife gNyan-bza worries that he may come to harm if he pursues the robbers. So she turned herself into a big frog and tried to block his way. Not knowing that it was his wife, Khritho in his rage kills her. Her painful cry alerts her father gNyan-rgan de-ba, he shoots a lethal arrow and kills Khritho.

The six brothers, sons of Khritho, vow to avenge the father's death, first they sought compensation from gNyan-rgan de-ba, and they received dragon, eagle, yak, tiger, goat and dog accordingly. The last two brothers, dBa' and lDa, were not happy with the compensations, goat and dog, and was said to have left for the borderland. These six brothers are popularly known as Meudung-drug, the six original tribes of Tibet, se, mu, dong, tong, dra and dru.[7]

The four brothers took the four animals as their respective Dra-la [Tib:dGra-bla], protective war gods, arousing the warrior spirit and proceeded to conquer the robbers from demon land who were the cause of their father's death. The story goes on how they ultimately subdued the demon king Khappa-lagring. These four animals became the symbols of the major major races of Tibet, lDong, bBra, 'Gru and sGa. Later, these animals were propitiated on the rLungta flag to represent the fortune and well beings of the Tibetan race. Prof. Samten Karmay says that the yak may have been replaced by a lion around the time when lions became the national emblem of Tibet[8].

China has something called Long-ma, 'Long' in Chinese means dragon and 'Ma' means horse, therefore, a Dragon-horse. Some scholars say rLung-rta is derived from Chinese Long-ma. If it is so, then it should be 'Brug-rta in Tibetan not rLung-rta. Tibetans could not have taken Long in the sense of pronunciation (sound) and Ma in the meaning. Dragon represents power, wealth and fortune in Chinese culture, and is considered as an auspicious symbol.

In Japan, there is something similar to rLung-rta called 'Ema', written as 絵馬 meaning 'picture horse'. It is a small wooden tablet with a picture of a horse. It has its origin in native Shinto religion; it is now found in both Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples. People write their wishes and prayers on an Ema tablet and hang the same on the Ema board of the shrines and temples. Horses are believed to carry the message to the Kami, spirits and gods. During an auspicious event the shrines and temples burn these Emas signifying the consummation of the devotees' prayers and wishes.

These Lungta prayer flags represent the typical Tibetan culture honoring interdependence and need for harmony among gods, elements [planet], human, and animals. It reveals the deep reverence that Tibetan culture holds for the gods and spirits above; respect for the natural elements; and the love and harmony with the animals around. This is further reflected in Zamling Chisang [Tib: 'Zam gling spyi bsangs][9], a universal prayer day. It is a prayer day dedicated to the world peace and harmony observed by the Tibetans since ancient time. 

Therefore, many social-scientists around the world are of the view that the understanding and preservation of Tibetan culture is not only necessary but indispensable and must for the world peace and harmony.

© tgarya

[1] This sequence is based on oral narrative sTag, sengs, khyung, 'brug and rta, and the pictures on the flag. Mentsekhang astrological Lotho has the following sequences: Srog, lus, wang, lung, and la [Tib: srog, lus, dbang, rlung-rta and bla].

[2] rgyad dang mi rgyag the tsom som nyi med, thebs dang mi thebs lung ta'i steng shod re རྒྱག་དང་མི་རྒྱག་ཐེ་ཚོམ་སོམ་ཉི་མེད།  ཐེབས་དང་མི་ཐེབས་རླུང་རྟའི་སྟེང་ཤོད་རེད།

[3] Samten Karmay,The Arrow and the Spindle, p-419.

[4] སྟག་སེང་ཁྱུང་འབྲུག་རླུང་རྟ་དར།  ལུས་བླ་སྲོག་དབང་རླུང་རྟ་རྒྱས།

[5] Samten Karmay, The Arrow and the Spindle, p-245

[6] ཕྲོམ། རྒྱ། ཧོར། བོད། འཇང་། མོན།

[7] History & Religious History Reader VI Part II, Sherig, p-3-4. Mi'u gdung drug: se, rmu, ldong, stong, dbra and 'bru

[8] Samten Karmay, The Arrow and the Spindle, p-418

[9] Zamling Chisang falls on the full moon day of the 5th month of Tibetan calendar, usually in the month of July. It started during the reign of the 8th century Emperor Trisrong Deutsan, when Guru Rinpoche performed prayers and purification rites on the successful completion of the Samye monastery. Since then it evolved as a prayer day dedicated to the world peace and harmony.